Acne is caused mainly by three important factors: bacteria, hormones, and sebum or oil. In its most simple form acne consists of blocked hair follicles, called comedones. Comedones come in two varieties: open and closed. Closed comedones (whiteheads or zits) form when a follicle is blocked beneath the surface of the skin. Debris such as oil and dead skin cells build up under the plug. As the pore swells, these substances leak into the adjacent skin and the body produces an inflammatory response. This appears as pus filled bumps. Open comedones (blackheads) are follicles blocked by dead skin cells and oil. In contrast with closed comedones, the surface of the follicle is open to the air. Dead skin cells and other debris react with the air and gradually change color. This oxidation produces chemicals that turn dark in much the same way that an apple changes color when exposed to the air. Dr. Goldenberg offers a wide range of therapies to combat acne and to improve acne scarring. Treatment options include topical creams, oral antibiotics or accutane, TCA 25% peel, blue light, and acne surgery. One of the most bothersome symptoms of acne is persistent redness, known as persistent erythema. Dr. Goldenberg specializes in using the V-Beam laser to help patients with redness due to acne.